Oxlets12

Appendix:   Comparative Orthography, Hand D and Oxford's Letters

 

Oxfordians who mock the spelling "Shaksper" ought to look more closely at Lord Oxford's letters.  An e to him is merely a decorative element, to be put on and off like a jewel in his hat, as the fancy takes him.  He writes lat, late, and latte, or hop, hope, and hoope indifferently. "Sake" is sak and slake is "slack."  On the contrary, Shakespeare makes distinctions:  made is not mad, and warrs are not wares.  If Hand D is evidence, he is rather sparing of superfluous terminal "e"s; whereas Oxford lavishes them on the smallest words:  he writes I ame, frome, hade, hathe, and even ofe.  Words ending in "ion" or "ing" or  "eth" almost always get the final flourish of an "e." One in three of the words in his letters is so ended; in More and the Quartos, the count is one in five.   Shakespeare distinguishes u/v from w; Oxford does not, leading to such striking spellings as lavers, dravne, knev, hawe, vove.  His predeliction for ow is evident throughout his orthography, in habitual spellings like wowld and thowght and howld—indeed, he uses that digraph over twice as frequently as Shakespeare does in Sir Thomas More:  in 5.4% of words to 2.3%.  Oxford spelled as he spoke, so dialect variants such as leke for "like," and vulgarisms like oft for "ought" naturally appear in his letters.  Almost every word in Hand D can be mismatched with a dissimilar spelling in the letters:  some variants exceptional or sparse; but others, like wowld, leke, tyne, laue/lave, all but invariant, and totally unknown in Shakespeare's works.

 

It has not been possible to hand-count every difference between Shakespeare's and Oxford's glossaries.  Where counts have been done, the dark red cells indicate Oxford's signature spellings (80-100% usage); light red, common spellings (40-79% usage).  Purple cells mark several of Oxford's distinctive variants:  not his commonest, but very rare in print.  Exceptional spellings for each writer are in red under Hand D, and in blue under Oxford.

 

 

 

Hand D

Oxford

Short a for WS long a

case

made [2]

make [3], shake

name [3]

spane, tane

babes, babyes, Safes, safer, shape

cas, casse [2]

mad [=made]

sak [=sake]

becam, cam [3]

vnaquantte[d]

carfully [4], incoragment [2]

 

state, maiestrate

abatte [2], datte, estatte, gratfull [3], importunat, innovat, lat [=late 2], latly(e) [3], latte [2], lattly, nominat [2], rat, ratte(s) [=rate(s), 5], recreat, reiteratte, relat, statte [2], vngratfull

Short e for WS long e

breed, feed, needs, proceed

feet

keep(es) [2]

adheres, meerly

 

be [9], beeff, kneele, me [4], see [2], we [6], wee, weele [4]

inded, ned [= need, 2]

complet

kep

her to fore [=heretofore], herafter [15], herby(e) [4], herof(e) [2],

releus [=relieves], steple [=steeple]

 

seek(e)

leklier, leklihode, lekly(e) [5], leklywhodes, lekwise [12]

Short e for WS long ea

bere(s) [=bears, 2], eate, entreate, hear, heare [9], leade  [2], meale, peace [17], perceaue, speake(s) [3], teares

aferd [=afeared], cler(ly) [2], eschet [2], eschette [1], nerly

Short i for WS long i

desyres, knyves, my [4], mynds, nyne, ryse, tymes, whiles

 

aduertis(ment) [4], lickinge [=liking], ocupid [=occupied], satisfis [=satisfise, satisfy], sid [=side], spitfull, tryffell, wryte [=writ]

Short o for WS long o

abode, both [5], grote, knowe, loff [=loaf], sowles, throne, throtes, throts

grotte [2], hop [2], impos [2], suppos, wrott [=wrote, 2]

Short u for WS long u

procure, nature

refuse

 

procur, coniectur [2], leisur,

abus, pervs [=peruse], tusday

conclud [3], exclud, frut, frutfull, frutles, imput [3], prosecut [2], sut, swt [=suit, 12, 2]

Long a for WS short a

backs

can

had [4]

man

trespas

warrs 

add, alas [3], ampler, appropriat, at [4], captaine, desperat, flanders, maisters, master(s) [3]

 

 

 

bake [=back, 10]

cane [5]

hade [17]

mane [=man, 2]

pase [=pass]

ware(s) [=war(s), 3]

ame [=am, 9], bare(s)[=bar(s), 10], crosebare, fare [=far, 6], glade [3], hape(s) [3], hapens, pakets, paste [=past], perhapes [7], quarell, shypwrake, slabes [5], slake [=slack], stare [=star], thane [=then, therefore], tryales [2], Walthame

Long e for WS short e

men  [4]

Bett(s) [8], lets [2], Lett, letts  [2], sett, whett

penny, prentisses  [3], prentizes, rebell(s) [4], red, tell [3], well

takene, tene [=ten]

yete

 

excheker [3], exprese, forene [=foreign], hundrede [7], reken. rekeninge, steed [=stead]

Long i for WS short i

bid, Chidd, did, forbid, hiddious

Credyt, Submyt

him [10]

 

 

 

 

 

slipp, parsnyp(s) [2], thipp [=the hip]

worship

 

 

Cytty [3], forgyven, lyst, lyve, symple [3], still [2], sytt

dyde [=did]

admite, benefite, benifite(s) [18], benifited, benyfite [2], benyfyte, commite [2], credite [4], forfited, forfyted, fyles [=fills], infenite, meite(s) [2], profite(s) [10], vnfite

 

hime [2], hyme [=him 2]

 

slipe, slype

friendshipe(s) [4], keepershipe, lordshipe(s) [37], lordshype [3], shypes, wardshipes

 

Berwike, sithe [5], sixe, smythe, styke [=stick], syke [=sick], syxe [2], trafike

 

sinn, ymagin

tyne(s) [=tin 145], tynemaster

begine [4], Robine, Skiners

Long o for WS short o

Doll [3], doggs, gospell, gott [2], not [14]

cofers [8], crose [3], crosebare, frome [= from 54], ode [=odd], stope [2]

 

 

blokes [19], cloke [=clock, 3], cofers [8], cokescome, crose [3], crosebare, floke, frome [= from 54], stoke(s) [=stock(s), 23], stope [2]

EO one for WS on

pardon

reasons

pardone [8]

seasone [9], treasones

 

abandone, comparisone [3], Ihone [=John, 5], Londone [4], lyone, persone(s) [15], sone [6], therone [2], vpone [12], whearone, wherone, whervpone

 

Essendone, Essingdone, Hamptone(s) [10], Hattone [2], Havltone, Havtone, Herdsone, Keltone, Mid(d)eltone(s) [7], Myddel(l)tone(s) [4], Northamptone

Long u for WS short u

ruff

Arther, Arthur, spurne, Surrey [5], Sury

com, Come, Coms, comand, Comaund  [2], Wisdome  [2]

 

thus [2]

 

Comforts, Countrey, Countreymen [2], Countrie, Country [2], cutt, much [2], must, nvmber, Submyt, such [3], vp  [4], vs [4]

rufe [=rough]

Arthure, spures

cumes [=comes], blossumes,

 

 

thuse

 

begune, iuge [=judge 10], rune(s) [=run(s), 8], sune(s) [=son(s), 10], tune [= tun]

 

[some; sum Q]

sume [=some 98], sumeone, sumes [=sums, 4], lothsume, troblesume [9]

a for WS ai

plaigue

straing, straingers [6], straungers

plage

strange [6], stranger(s) [17], stranglye, strangnes

EO aale for WS all, aule

calls

shall  [2]

 

al, all [14], braule,  enstalls, palsey  [2], portigall, quallyfy

caald, caale

shale [=shall]

 

Cornwaale [Cf. Waales, 2], Cornwale [7], faal(e) [=fall 3], fales, haales [2], smaale [2], smale [10]

EO all for ale

 

sall [=sale], salles

EO e for WS ea

geat, togeather

 

 

 

himsealf, sealf [4], sealues

 

hearing [=herring]

aleage, alleage(d) [3], altogether [2], to gether [3], together, forget [10], forgett [2], forgettfull, get [5], gett(es) [11], getter

 

self(e) [139], selfwill, selues [11], seluf, themselues [12], herself [6], himself(e) [19], miself, myself [5]

EO e for WS i/y

lyke [5]

disleke, dislekinge, leeke, leke(s) [21], leket [=liked], lekinge [7], leklier, leklihode, lekly(e) [5], leklywhodes, lekwise [12], misleke(e) [4], misleked, mislekes, senister [=sinister]

 

aucthoryty [2]

authorite &c. [158], authoritie &c. [4] , quantetie [4], quantety(e) [7]

EO i/y for WS e

be [9], me [4]

byfolde [=befooled], mithink [=methinks], my thowght [methought]

 

betwien(e) [13], betwyne, bin(e) [=been 4], briche [=breech], cosine [=cozen, cheat], imbassadour(es) [3], leuide [=levied], sildommer [=seldomer?], wikes [=weeks]

EO oo for WS o [o:]

both [5]

go [2], no [10], o [2], so [2]

grote

abode, sowles, throne, throtes, throts

Moor [16], moore [2], more [pers. name]

boothe [12]

goo [15], noo [10], soo [18], sooever

groot [1]

hoole [=hole], hoop(s) [=hope 2], hoope(s), hoopinge, [9], loo [=low], loode [=load], moo [=mo(re)], moore [17], mooreover [2], moost [2], noot(es) [=note 6], prooceede, restoore, Roo [=Row],whoole [17], whoolye, wroot(e) [=wrote 2]

EO oo for WS o

 

woord(es) [18], woordlye, woorste, woorthe

 

do  [7], doon [=done]

who, whose

doo [118], done [43], don [1], donne [1]

whoo [44], whome [35], whoome, whoose

EO o for WS oo [u:]

choose, moorne, rootes, rule  [4]

 

byfolde [=befooled], singouler [=singular], tropes [=troops]

 

EO o for WS u, short oo

look, stood

put

vnloktfor, vnderfotte

pute

 

Brother [2]

broother [6], moother

moover

of

of [26]

ofe [3], offe [1], herofe, theareofe, thearofe, therofe [12], theroffe[1], whereofe [5]

 

EO ow for WS oo

coold  [2], shoold  [5], woold  [8]

cowld [17], could [18], showld(e) [121], showldbe [4], should(e) [2], sowlde, wowld(e) [106], wowldbe, would

EO owld/ould  for WS old

hold [3], told

behouldinge [4], behowld, behowldinge [9], bould, boulder. bouldly [2], bowld(e)[5], bowldest, bowldlier, copihoulders, gould, gowlden, hould [2], houshould, houshowlds, howld(es)[5], howlden, howldinge, howledinge, howshowld, ould, owld(e) [7], sould [=sold 3], sowld(e) [=sold 18], tould, towld(e) 10], vnfould

EO oy for y

[Cf. noyce, troy, voyce]

priuoyte, pryvoy(e) [=privity, privy, 2]

EO u/v for w

lawe

laue [4], laufull(y) [3], lav, lave [34], laver(s), owtlavrie [=outlawry 2], vnlaufull [Cf. Lauenhame=Lavenham]

 

 

drave(s) [=draw(s) 10], dravethe, dravinge, dravne [=drawn 5], drue, feve [=few 2], knev [=knew], reneve [=renew], save [=saw], vove [=vow]

EO w for u/v & we for ew

haue  [10]

 

out

 

 

 

trewe  [3]

 

 

 

hawe [=have]

 

dowghter(s) [3], dowt(es) [23], dowtethe, mowthe, owt(e) [58], owtlavrie, owtwardes, withowt, yowse [=use], yowthe

 

trwe [17], trwithe [2], trwly

assewred [=assured], bwy(es) [=buy(s) 8], bwyer, bwyinge [3], bwylt [=built], bwyrd [bird], dwe [4], swt(es) [=suit(s) 23], swter(s) [3], valwe, yeu [=give]

 

you [58], youle [2], your [6], yor [13], our  [5]

yow  [301] , yowe [9], yowre [556], yowr [16], yowres [7],  youre [1], owre [15]

WS c for t

adicion, infeccion, transportacion

[never]

WS ct for t

aucthoryty  [2]

authorite [9], authoritie [1]

EO de/te for WS d/t

Charterd, clothd, lyvd, pleasd, quelld, ruld, sufferd, topt, vsd, willd

aduertisde, disposeste, grievde, promisde, satisfisde [=satisfied 5]

EO -ede for -ed

aged, detested, infected  [2], owed, remoued, wretched

abusede, allowede [2], callede, considerede, deceasede, deceyvede, destroyede, disposede [3], experiencede, fearede, gaynede, performede, pleasede, ponderede, preferrede, provede, ratede, raysede, repeatede, rootede

aught

taught

 

doughter(s) [5]

EO gh: ough/ought

although

 

 

 

 

thoughts

 

 

through

 

brought, wrought

allthough, allthowghe, although, althoughe [3], althowgh(e) [15], thoughe [3], thowghe [9], allthought [2], althought, thowght [3], thought [2], althoth(e) [2]

 

thought [9], thowgh, thowght [33], thowghte [2]

 

through, throughly, throw, throwgh(e)  [13], throught [5], throwght [2]

 

enough

 inoughe [2], inought [2], inowghe [3]

 

rough

rufe, rufly(e) [2]

ought/oft

[ought]

oft(e) [7]

EO ough for ou

doubt

 

 

out

dought [6], doughted, doughtfullye, doughtinge, vndoughtedly

 

ought [10], wytheought, wythought

EO ight for it(e)

quyte (Cf. right)

 

aquighted [=acquitted], quight [2], wright [5], wrightinge [8], wryght [2], wryghtinge

EO -inge

breaking, doing, eating [2], hearing, plodding, removing, rysing, saying, shillings, vndoing, vrging

bring, king(s) [7], kinge, thing(s) [4]

acceptinge, &c. [259]; accordinglie, &c. [37]

 

bringe [25], kinge(s) [8], everythinge, nothinge [39], sumthinge(s) [11], sumthynge, thinge(s) [56]

EO -ione

adicion, infeccion, mediation, nation, opynions, proclamation, question, supposytion, transportacion, ynnovation

actione, &c. [253], actions, &c. [71]

WS -nc for -nce

audience, obedienc [3], obedyenc, ffraunc, insolenc, province, violence

france [3], fraunce [3] + 185 -nce

prince [10], princlie, princlye [2]

WS -nck

banck, thanck, thinck

anker, blank, drunke, mithink, prankes, thank(es) [18], thankfull, thankfulnes, thankfuly, thankinge, think(es) [41], thinkethe [2], thinkinge [4], thynke [8]

EO -rck

mark(e) [3], shark

marckes

WS sc- for s-

scilens, sylenct, silnes [sic] (Cf. discipline)

silence, silently, sylence

WS mono, EO disyll.

shreef, shreeve, Shreiff, Shreiue, Shreue, shrevaltry

sherife [2], sheryfe [2]

EO -the

with

with, within, etc. [172]; wyth, wythought, etc. [15]; wythe, notwythestandinge, thearwythe, wytheought, etc. [84]; whearwithe, etc. [52]

EO -the

hath  [4]

hathe [182], hatthe

 

there, ther, thers

 

 

where, wherin

thear(e) [21], thearabout, theareofe. theares, thearfore, thearin, thearofe, thearwythe

 

whear(e) [13], whearas [22], whearat, whearby, wheareas, whearfore [5], whearin [8], whearof [4], whearone, whearvpon, whearwithe

EO y for i/j

 

inyoy [=enjoy]

Notable

accept

dept [=debt]

 

afoord

afford

 

another

an other [26]

 

aucthoryty  [2]

 

 

babes

slabe(s) [= slabs 5]

 

bloody

bludd [3], bludde [1], bloode [1]

 

boy [302], boyes [21], boies [5] Q

boij

 

certainly

certeyn(e) [23], certeine [3], certayne [1]

 

Charg, charge

larglie

 

dung [2] (Cf. strong)

tonge, yong (Cf. stronge [2], wronge(s) [4])

 

fower, power

fowre [39] foure [1], fourpence [1], fowrtene [1], powre [4]

 

freind(s) [2], frends [1]

friend(es) [75], freend(es) [4], frend [1]

 

gentlemen

gentelman [3], gentelmen [2], gentellman [1]

 

halfpence, halfpeny [Q]

halfpennie, halpenie [5], halpennie(s) [7], halpenny(e) [15], halpens, halpeny(e) [6]

 

hart

sterue [=starve]

 

has

hathe [182], hath [3], hatthe

 

Iarman (Cf. Maiestie)

Germanie [2]  (Cf. Magestie)

 

Ingland  [2]

England(e) [41], English(e) [3]

 

Iugge [F; Q, Iug=common name for a woman, “a term of disparagement’] (Cf.

iugling, iuggler, vs. iudge, iudgment Q]

iugges [=judges 9], iuge [=judge 10], iugment [3], iugged [=judged] (Cf. iuggel, iuglinges =juggled, jugglings)

 

levenp<enc>e (Cf. ”leven wether” WT)

 

 

lugage

Luggate [=Ludgate]

 

oft [=often]

oft [=ought]

 

passe

gresse [=grass]

 

vppon  [3]

vpon [85], vpone [12]

 

waight

streyght(er) [3], weyghinge, weyght(es) [71], weygthe(s) [5], weight [1]

 

what [12], whats

whatt [24]

 

which  [4]

whiche [187]

 

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